HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorders Among Adult Nigerians in the Era of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy

OBIABO Y.O.

Abstract


Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes a multi-systemic disease. The brain is substantially affected throughout the course of the infection from the seroconversion period to the advanced stage. The aim of this paper was to review the literature and present an updated knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatment of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders.
Materials and methods: A careful search of literature was done in both local and international book and journal publications using web-based search engines such pubmed, medscape, hinari, google and visit to libraries in the country and in outside the country.
Results: Prior to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV associated dementia (HAD) was seen in nearly 50% of those infected often with rapid progression carrying a poor prognosis with a median survival of six months. With ART and sustained virological control the outlook has changed with patients stabilizing with improved immunological and neurocognitive functions and surviving for many years.
Conclusion: HIV is neuro-invasive and neuro-tropic causing a wide spectrum of
neurocognitive disorders.


Keywords


HIV associated dementia, neurocognitive disorders, neuroAIDS, HIV encephalopathy, antiretroviral therapy

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