Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, fetal and maternal outcomes of parturients with risk factors versus parturients without risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus: A preliminary analysis of the comparative study of blood sugar levels at a tertiary hospital in southern Nigeria
Keywords:Paturients, Blood sugar, risk factors, comparative analysis
Background: Typically asymptomatic, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with myriads of maternal and fetal complications and has been shown to predict morbidity in both mother and the newborn much later in life. The incidence of these complications in GDM has been strongly associated with a maternal glycemic level. As a generalization, the degree of maternal hyperglycemia dictates the fetal outcome.
Methods: This study was a prospective cohort analytical observational study of blood glucose levels amongst two cohorts of women who attended antenatal care at the obstetric unit of Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara.
Results: The prevalence of GDM was 31.3% and 9.4%, respectively, for cases and controls. The difference in prevalence and glycemic control was statistically significant. The subjects were recruited based on a positive history of - previously haven had macrosomic babies, maternal weight greater than 90kg, unexplained intrauterine fetal death/stillbirth, fasting glycosuria, and the presence of a family history of GDM in first-degree relatives. Interventional deliveries and maternal and fetal complications were statistically significantly higher in cases than in controls.
Discussion: The prevalence of GDM in cases was significantly higher than in the controls; this seems to have given some credence to the fact that the risk factors based on which the patients were recruited may indeed be predictive of the risk of developing GDM in the pregnant parturients in Delta State Nigeria.
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