Lichen Sclerosus in Extremes of Age

A Report of Two Cases in Skin of Colour in a Secondary Health Facility in South-South, Nigeria




KEYWORDS: Lichen Sclerosus, Paediatric Age, Elderly, Skin of Colour, Nigeria.


Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic dermatologic condition with a bimodal peak age of occurrence; it is encountered in pre-pubertal paediatric ages and post-menopausal populations. This dermatosis is thought to have an autoimmune basis and has been rarely reported in our environment. Although more common in adults, it can affect individuals of all ages. This case series presents two unique cases of Lichen sclerosus in a 4-year-old female and a 70-year-old female reported in persons with skin of colour, highlighting the variations in presentation, diagnosis, and management in these distinct age groups. This case series also aims to increase awareness about this condition which may likely have be misdiagnosed as other similar dermatoses; thus, limiting the case detection rate of this dermatosis in African population.



Wang J, Zhang W, Li, X. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Lichen Sclerosus and Bulbous Urethral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report. American journal of men's health. 2020;14(6). 1557988320982710.

Gocev G, Nikolovska S, Dohcheva-Karajovanov I. A Pediatric Case of Disseminated Lichen Sclerosus – a Case Report. Serbian Journal of Dermatology and Venereology. 2017; 9(1), 3917.9-13.

Jacyk WK, Isaac F. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in Nigerians. J Natl Med Assoc. 1979;71(4):387-388. PMID: 439173; PMCID: PMC2537362.

Krapf JM, Mitchell L, Holton MA, Goldstein AT. Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus: Current Perspectives. Int J Womens Health. 2020; 15(12):11-20. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S191200. PMID: 32021489; PMCID: PMC6970240.

Jabłonowska, O., Woźniacka, A., Szkarłat, S., & Żebrowska, A. Female genital lichen sclerosus is connected with a higher depression rate, decreased sexual quality of life and diminished work productivity. PloS one. 2023;18 (4), e0284948.

Kirtschig G. Lichen Sclerosus-Presentation, Diagnosis and Management. Deutsches

Arzteblatt International. 2016; 113(19): 337–343.

Micheletti L, Preti M, Radici G, Boveri S, Di Pumpo O, Privitera SS, Ghiringhello B, Benedetto C. Vulvar Lichen sclerosus and neoplastic transformation: a retrospective study of 976 cases. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2016; 20:180–`183.

Marfatia, Y., Surani, A., & Baxi, R. Genital lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in females: An update. Indian journal of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS. 2019; 40(1): 6–12.

Chi, C. C., Kirtschig, G., Baldo, M., Brackenbury, F., Lewis, F., & Wojnarowska, F. Topical interventions for genital lichen sclerosus. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2011; 12. CD008240.

Yu-Hua L, Yu-Hung Wu. Extragenital Bullous Lichen Sclerosus: A Case report and Literature. Dermatologica Sinica. 2014; 32:169-171.

Padmavathy L, Lakshmana Rao L, Dhana Lakshmi M, Sylvester N, Ethirajan N. Lichen Sclerosus Atrophicus [LSA] in the Areolae: A Case Report. Case Rep Dermatol Med. 2012; 2012:825963. doi: 10.1155/2012/825963. PMID: 23259089; PMCID: PMC3504285.

Tong LX, Sun GS, Teng JMC. Pediatric lichen sclerosus: a review of the epidemiology and

treatment options. Pediatr Dermatol. 2015; 32(5):593-599

Kyriakis KP, Emmanuelides S, Terzoudi S, Palamaras I, Damoulaki E, Evangelou G. Gender and age prevalence distributions of morphea en plaque and anogenital lichen sclerosus. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007; 21 (6):825-826.

Kizer WS, Prarie T, Morey AF. Balanitis xerotica obliterans: Epidemiologic distribution in an equal access health care system. South Med J. 2003; 96(1):9-11

Catherine CN. Case Link Vitiligoid Lichen Sclerosus and Darker Skin. MDEdge Paediatric journal. 2018.

Doulaveri G, Armira K, Kouris A, Karypidis D, Potouridou I. Genital vulvar lichen sclerosus in monozygotic twin women: a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Dermatol. 2013; 5(3):321-325. doi: 10.1159/000356775. PMID: 24348381; PMCID: PMC3843921.

Sherman V, McPherson T, Baldo M, et al: The high rate of familial lichen sclerosus suggests a genetic contribution: an observational cohort study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2010; 24:1031–1034se, 21, 145-149.

Sahn EE, Bluestein EL, Oliva S. Familial lichen sclerosus et atrophicus in childhood. Pediatr Dermatol. 1994;11(2):160-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.1994.tb00572.x. PMID: 8041658.

Aslanian FM, Marques MT, Matos HJ, Pontes LF, Porto LC, Azevedo LM, Filgueira AL. HLA markers in familial Lichen sclerosus. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2006;4(10):842-847. English, German. doi: 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2006.06087.x. PMID: 17010173.

Jiménez Y, Gavaldá C, Carbonell E, Margaix M, Sarrión G. Lichen sclerosus of the oral mucosa: A case report. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2008;13(7):E403-406.

Khatib J, Wargo JJ, Krishnamurthy S, Travers JB. Hemorrhagic Bullous Lichen Sclerosus: A Case Report. Am J Case Rep. 2020; 21:e919353. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.919353. PMID: 33024070; PMCID: PMC7552941.

Nóbrega MM, Cabral F, Corrêa MC, Barcaui CB, Bressan AL, Gripp AC. Lichen sclerosus associated with localized scleroderma: dermoscopy contribution. An Bras Dermatol. 2016;91(4):534-536. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.20164813. PMID: 27579757; PMCID: PMC4999120.

Arnold N, Manway M, Stephenson S, Lipkin H. Extragenital bullous lichen sclerosus on the anterior lower extremities: report of a case and literature review. Dermatol Online J. 2017;23(6):13030/qt8dn3p7kv. PMID: 28633746.

Vettorazzi, J., Valério, E.G., Perez, A.V., Sbaraini, M., Segat, L., Vetori, D.V., Grossi, F.S. and Magno, V.A. The Effects of Lichen Sclerosus and Its Treatments on Sexuality: Case Report. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2009;9:755-763.

Haefner HK, Aldrich NZ, Dalton VK, Gagné HM, Marcus SB, Patel DA, Berger MB. The impact of vulvar lichen sclerosus on sexual dysfunction. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014;23(9):765-770. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2014.4805. PMID: 25162790; PMCID: PMC4158972

Cheng, H., Oakley, A., Conaglen, J. and Conaglen, H. Quality of Life and Sexual Distress in Women with Erosive Vulvovaginal Lichen Planus. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. 2017;21(2):145-149.

Yıldız Ş, Cengiz H, Kaya C, Alay İ, Öztürk E, Tunca AF, Erdoğan A, Yaşar L. Evaluation of genital self-image and sexual dysfunction in women with vulvar lichen planus or lichen sclerosus. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2022;43(2):99-106. doi: 10.1080/0167482X.2020.1857359. Epub 2020 Dec 10. PMID: 33297796

Dermoscopic Features of Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus in the Setting of a Prospective Cohort of Patients: New Observations. Alessandro Borghi, Monica Corazza, Sara Minghetti, Enzo Bianchini, Annarosa Virgili. Dermatology. 2016;232 (1): 71–77.

Alessandro Borghi, Monica Corazza, Sara Minghetti, Giulia Toni, Annarosa Virgili. Clinical and dermoscopic changes of vulvar lichen sclerosus after topical corticosteroid treatment. The Journal of Dermatology. 2016; 43 (9): 1078 – 1082.

Xavier J., Vieira-Baptista P., Moreira A., Portugal R., Beires J., Tanos V. Vaginal lichen sclerosus: report of two cases. Facts, views & vision in ObGyn. 2017; 9(3):171–173.




How to Cite

Lichen Sclerosus in Extremes of Age: A Report of Two Cases in Skin of Colour in a Secondary Health Facility in South-South, Nigeria. AJTMBR [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 25 [cited 2024 Jul. 18];6(2):101-8. Available from:

Similar Articles

1-10 of 64

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.